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MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS- A TOOL FOR PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES. POONAM DHAND, BALBIR SINGH, GEETANJALI

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS- A TOOL FOR PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES.

POONAM DHAND, BALBIR SINGH, GEETANJALI

International Journal of Natural Product Science 2012: Spl Issue 1:220.

Abstract(RBIP-220)

Biotransformation is a biological process in which an organic compound is modified into a reversible product. It involves simple, chemically defined reactions catalyzed by enzymes present in the cells. Cells (i.e., microbial, plant and animal) provide the enzymes to catalyze the transformation reactions. Biotransformation processes are often preferred to chemical processes when high specificity is required, to attack specific site on the substrate and for a single isomer of the product. Biotransformation processes were carried with plant cells successfully for a variety of novel compounds i.e., cardiac glycosides, digoxin, benzyl isoquinoline, etc. They perform various types of reactions such as hydroxylation of cardienolides. The most important aspect of biotransformation by plant cell is conjugation reactions. A systematic approach to microbial transformation was initiated by Bertrand, and the following reactions were found: oxidation, hydrolysis, reduction, acylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, amination, halogenation and resolution of racemic mixtures. Secondary metabolites comprise a diverse range of compounds synthesized by various fungal cultures and some bacteria such as Streptomyces. The most commonly used microorganisms in the production of secondary metabolites are fungi and actinomycetes. Microbial transformations are attractive because they duplicate their biomass so quickly (between 20 minutes and 2 hours) and thus produce cost effective metabolites.
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