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ORAL INSULIN: A PROMISING CHALLENGE. Harwinder Kumar, Manoj Kumar Katual

ORAL INSULIN: A PROMISING CHALLENGE.

Harwinder Kumar, Manoj Kumar Katual

International Journal of Natural Product Science 2012: Spl Issue 1:201.

Abstract(RBIP-201)

Till recent, subcutaneous route remained the most common means for administering Insulin because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance. Designing and formulating Insulin delivery through the GIT has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 5% to at least 30%. Efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form has been used to explore oral Insulin delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and muco-adhesive polymers. A recombinant human insulin (hexyl-insulin-monoconjugate 2 or "HIM2"), compound can be modified with a polymer (poly methacrylic-g-ethylene glycol) in which a single amphiphilic oligomer is covalently linked to the free amino group on the Lys-β 29 residue of recombinant human insulin via an amide bond, that is intended, on delivery by mouth, to resist degradation by enzymes of the stomach and intestine and to be efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream. It is believed that once delivered by mouth to the intestine and into the bloodstream, oral insulin can follow the same pathway as insulin released by the pancreas, into the portal vein and then directly to the liver. Since the liver is a significant participant in the control of blood glucose, it is believed that successfully activating the liver with oral insulin may provide a mechanism to potentially re-establish normal glucose control in the diabetic patient (Type-II) and turn on a number of metabolic activities that can help mitigate complications of diabetes.
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