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PLANT PHENOLIC AS ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: A REVIEW. Pooja atri, Anjoo kamboj

PLANT PHENOLIC AS ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: A REVIEW.

Pooja atri, Anjoo kamboj

International Journal of Natural Product Science 2012: Spl Issue 1:166.

Abstract(RBIP-166)

Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses are an increasing worldwide health concern. They are one of the main hazards for both humans and animals. A number of traditional plant derived folk medicines rich in polyphenols used from earliest times to cure disorders of the blood stream including blood pressure, antiviral effects, stomach disorders, antiseptic action, dressing of burns and inflammation and inhibition of direct acting mutagens. The ethics of modern medical practice are also increasingly turning their attention to folk medicines as source of new drugs and to investigate the chemical and biological basis of old remedies. Several of these phytochemicals have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including antiviral effects by either inhibiting the formation of viral DNA or RNA or inhibiting the activity of viral reproduction. Two major obstacles to the development and use of effective antiviral chemotherapy are the close relationship that exists between the multiplying virus and the host cell, and that viral diseases can only be diagnosed and recognized after it is too late for effective antiviral agent must prevent completion of the viral growth cycle in the infected cell without being toxic to the surrounding normal cells.

Phenolics are class of plant secondary metabolites that are characterized by the presence of one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a benzene ring or to other complex aromatic ring structures. They are widely distributed in plants and are responsible for color development, pollination and protection against UV radiation and pathogens. Phenols and bioflavanoids are the major classes with antiviral activity against various diverse virus families such as retroviridae, hepadnaviridae, hespervirides, HIV virus, influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, dengue virus, polio virus etc. For antiviral activity presence of hydroxyl group and ester groups are necessary. The phenolics with five and more hydroxyl groups and 3, 4, 5-three methoxy derivatives show anti-viral and anti-rabies activity while alkyl-esters of gallic acid (gallates), epicathechin responsible for anti-herpetic activity.

Polyphenols act as antiviral agent, different target of antiviral action, evaluation methods of antiviral properties and various phenolic components isolated from plants with antiviral activities are outlined and discussed.
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