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RECENT ADVANCES IN NDDS (NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS) FOR DELIVERY OF ANTI-HIV DRUGS. Gurpreet Karwal, Poonamdeep Kaur, Rishu Kakkar, H S Rao

RECENT ADVANCES IN NDDS (NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS) FOR DELIVERY OF ANTI-HIV DRUGS.

Gurpreet Karwal, Poonamdeep Kaur, Rishu Kakkar, H S Rao

International Journal of Natural Product Science 2012: Spl Issue 1:38.

Abstract (RBIP-38)

Novel drug delivery systems present an opportunity for formulation scientists to overcome the many challenges associated with antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, thereby improving the management of patients with HIV/AIDS. Currently available Anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Most of these drugs bear some significant drawbacks such as relatively short half-life, low bioavailability, poor permeability and undesirable side effects. Efforts have been made to design drug delivery systems for anti HIV agents to: a) reduce the dosing frequency, b) increase the bioavailability and decrease the degradation/metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, c) improve the CNS penetration and inhibit the CNS efflux, and d) deliver them to the target cells selectively with minimal side effects. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the various ARV delivery systems that have been developed for achieving sustained drug release kinetics, specifically targeting drugs to the macrophages, brain and gastric mucosa, and for addressing formulation difficulties such as poor solubility, stability and drug entrapment. Studies on the potential of systems for alternative routes of ARV drug administration, i.e, transdermal and buccal are also highlighted. The physico-chemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various systems such as sustained release tablets, ceramic implants, nanoparticles, nanocontainers, liposomes, emulsomes, aspasomes, micro emulsions, nanopowders and PheroidTM are summarized. Further studies that remain to be undertaken for formulation optimization are also identified. This review highlights the significant potential that novel drug delivery systems have for the future effective treatment of HIV/AIDS patients on ARV drug therapy.
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