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MICROBIAL CELLULASES AND ITS APPLICTIONS: A REVIEW. P.Saranraj, D. Stella and D. Reetha

MICROBIAL CELLULASES AND ITS APPLICTIONS: A REVIEW.

P.Saranraj, D. Stella and D. Reetha

International Journal of Biochemistry & Biotech Science 2012; 1: 1-12

Abstract

Numerous agricultural residues generated due to diverse agricultural practices and food processing such as rice straw, yam peels, cassava peels, banana peels among others represents one of the most important energy resources. The major components of these are cellulose and hemicellulose (75-80%) while lignin constitutes only 14%. Yearly accumulation of these agricultural residues causes deterioration of the environment and huge loss of potentially valuable nutritional constituents which when processed could yield food, feed, fuel, chemicals and minerals. Agricultural residues when dumped in open environment constitute health hazard due to pollution and support for the growth of microorganisms. The present review is focused on microbial cellulases and its applications. Cellulose is considered as one of the most important sources of carbon on this planet and its annual biosynthesis by both land plants and marine algae occurs in many tones per annum. Recycling of agricultural residue can be achieved naturally and artificially by microorganisms. Aerobic organisms such as fungi, bacteria, and some anaerobic organisms have been shown to be able to degrade some constituents of these residues. Fungi play a significant role in the degradation of cellulose under aerobic conditions. Cellulases are important enzymes not only for their potent applications in different industries, like industries of food processing, animal feed production, pulp and paper production , and in detergent and textile industry, but also for the significant role in bioconversion of agriculture wastes in to sugar and bioethanol. This review assesses the following topics: cellulose in agricultural wastes, cellulases and its types, cellulolytic microorganisms, microbial degradation of cellulose and cellulase production, microbial fermentation for cellulase production and application of cellulases.

Keywords: Cellulose, Agricultural wastes, Cellulase, Microorganisms and Fermentation.
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