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DIURNAL VARIATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SALIVA FROM PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE. Ramez Chahine, Randa Diab, Mounir Doumit

DIURNAL VARIATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SALIVA FROM PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Ramez Chahine, Randa Diab, Mounir Doumit

International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology Science 2013; 3(5): 8-18.

Abstract

A relationship between total antioxidant activity (TAA) in whole saliva and periodontal diseases (PD) is now well established; however, the variability over time needs more examination. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of circadian rhythm on the total antioxidant status of stimulated and non-stimulated saliva in vitro from patients with PD versus normal individuals. 20 subjects with PD and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were selected. Salivary samples (both stimulated and non-stimulated) were taken between 7 and 8 in the morning and 5 and 6 in the afternoon. Salivary flow was measured and the levels of glutathione, lipid peroxidation and TAA in the saliva samples were evaluated. In addition, the scavenging effect of saliva was tested in three systems generating free radicals. Results showed that glutathione and TAA in afternoon saliva of HS were significantly higher than morning saliva; while lipid peroxidation remained stable. Conversely, subjects with PD had no significant increase of glutathione and TAS in afternoon saliva and lipid peroxidation was enhanced. Similarly the afternoon saliva of HS but not of PD subjects was significantly more potent to scavenge free radicals in vitro than morning saliva, especially for superoxide radical. Moreover, stimulated saliva possessed a scavenging capacity more than non-stimulated saliva: that activity showed to be higher in afternoon saliva than the morning one, and much more in HS patients than PD ones. In conclusion: Patients with PD failed to increase their saliva TAA in order to scavenge free radicals that might be potentially produced in crescendo during the day span. A balance exists between pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in oral cavity. This balance is absent in patients with periodontal disease; and so it is necessary to correct it by using a proper antioxidant in due time.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, circadian rhythm, periodontal diseases, saliva.
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