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CHEMOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) EXTRACT ON ACEPHATE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS. Ramandeep Singh, Ravi Kant, Savita Prashar, Ravi Kiran

CHEMOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) EXTRACT ON ACEPHATE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

Ramandeep Singh, Ravi Kant, Savita Prashar, Ravi Kiran

International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology Science 2012; 2(3): 10-23.


Abstract

Indiscriminate use of Acephate, an organophosphorus pesticide in the agricultural practices in India, has resulted in detrimental exposure to humans and other non target species. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as an antioxidant to protect against acephate induced oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. Thirty two male Wistar rats were equally classified into four groups. Control group received distilled water. Acephate-treated group was administrated 360 mg/kg body weight acephate. Acephate and neem extract (NE) treated group was given 1ml of NE/100 g body weight simultaneously with the same dose of acephate. NE treated group was given NE only with the same dose. The daily treatments were administered orally for 15 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, increased activities of transaminases, phosphoatases, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase enzymes and decreased hepatic glycogen and protein contents and glutathione reductase (GR) activity. An elevated number of micronucleated cells suggestive of the acephate induced genotoxicity were also observed. Histopathology revealed destruction of the normal hepatic architecture and severe pathological alterations post acephate treatment. However, treatment of rats with NE reversed these biochemical indices and chromosomal and histopathological alterations. The present study thus established that acephate induced oxidative damage was alleviated by neem extract.

Key words: Acephate, Anti-oxidant, Genotoxicity, Neem extract, Oxidative stress
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